Moving the Universities to the «Third Mission» in Europe, New Impulses and Challenges in Doctoral Education

Patrícia Santos

Resumen


In a society in which knowledge plays an increasing role, European universities have become essential actors. This has been reflected in demands to redefine their traditional missions and open the door to a «third mission». Links with external partners become a central part of its mission and priority of science policy and higher education. This set of trends is presented in this paper based on the analysis of one of the contemporary university components: the doctoral education. We have been seeing a renewed debate about the doctoral education that trigger changes in terms of their characteristics, functions and values. To this end, we developed a review of the scientific literature produced on the subject and the use of secondary sources regarding the development of scientific and educational systems in Europe. We also use the Portuguese case as an illustrative example of the analysis. We consider the agents operating in higher education within its borders and outside the sector, at global and national levels. What we see analyzing the doctoral education in Europe is the creation of new institutions, openness to more student groups, other teaching methods and more collaboration with industry. The development of doctoral programs is seen today to prepare researchers for careers in academia, but also for other sectors. Changes in the nature of research and knowledge produced by doctoral students, as in their own training paths, are important aspects.


Palabras clave


doctorate education; knowledge society; education-industry relations; training-employment relations

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Altbach, P. (2007). Tradition and Transition: The International Imperative in Higher Education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Amaral, A., & Magalhães, A. (2003). The Triple Crisis of the University and its Reinvention. Higher Education Policy, 16, 239-253. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300018.

Anderson, M., Louis, K., & Earle, J. (1994). Disciplinary and departmental effects on observations of faculty and graduate student misconduct. Journal of Higher Education, 65(3), 330-50. doi: 10.2307/2943971.

Armitage, A. (2007). Supervisory Power and Postgraduate Supervision. International Journal of Management Educaton, 6(2), 18-29. doi: 10.3794/ijme.62.179.

Auriol, L. (2007). Labour market characteristics and international mobility of doctorate holders: results for seven countries. STI Working Paper, 2007/2. OECD Publishing. Extracted the 4 of January, 2016 from http http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/310254328811

Auriol, L., Felix, B., & Schaaper, M. (2010). Mapping Careers and Mobility of Doctorate Holders: Draft Guidelines, Model Questionnaire and Indicators – Second Edition – the OECD/UNESCO Institute for Statistics/ EUROSTAT Careers of Doctorate Holders Project. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2010/01. OECD Publishing. Extracted 25 of September, 2015 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kmlfbn2ddtd-en

Banerjee, S., & Morley, C. (2013). Professional Doctorates in Management: Toward a Practice-Based Approach to Doctoral Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(2), 173-193. doi: 10.5465/amle.2012.0159

Barbagli, M. (1982). Educating for Unemployment: Politics, Labour Markets and the School System – Italy, 1859-1973. Nova Iorque: Columbia UP.

Barnacle, R. (2005). Research education ontologies: exploring doctoral becoming. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(2), 179-188. doi: 10.1080/07294360500062995.

Barroca, A., Meireles, G., & Neto, C. (2015). A empregabilidade dos doutorandos nas empresas portuguesas, Matosinhos, Advancis Bussiness Service. Extracted 10 of May, 2016 from http://uniarea.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/AEmpregabilidadedosDoutoradosnasempresasportuguesas.pdf

Becher, T. (1987). Disciplinary Discourse. Studies in Higher Education, 12, 261-274.

Becher, T., Henkel, M., & Kogan, M. (1994). Graduate education in britain. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Belkhodja, O., & Landry, R. (2007). The Triple-Helix collaboration: Why do researchers collaborate with industry and the government? What are the factors that influence the perceived barriers? Budapest Scientometrics, 70(2), 301-332. doi: 10.1007/s11192-007-0205-6.

Birnholtz, J. (2007). When Do Researchers Collaborate? Toward a Model of Collaboration Propensity. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(14), 2226-2239. doi: 10.1002/asi.20684.

Bleiklie, I. (1998). Justifying the evaluative state: New public management ideals in higher education. European Journal of Education, 33(3), 299-316.

Blumenthal, D., Causino, N., Campbell, E., & Louis, K. (1996). Relationships between academic institutions and industry in the life sciences – an industry survey. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334(6), 368-73. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199602083340606.

Borrell-Damian, L. (2009). Collaborative Doctoral Education University-Industry Partnerships for enhancing knowledge exchange DOC-CAREERS Project. EUA Publications. Extracted the 13 of January, 2015 from http://www.eua.be/Libraries/research/doc-careers.pdf?sfvrsn=0

Borrell-Damian, L., Brown, T., Dearing, A., Font, J., Hagen, S., Metcalfe, J., & Smith, J. (2010). Collaborative Doctoral Education: University-Industry Partnerships for Enhancing Knowledge Exchange. Higher Education Policy, 23, 493-514. doi: 10.1057/hep.2010.20.

Bourdieu, P. (1976). Le champ scientifique. Actes de Ia Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 2/3, 88-104. [Reproduced by Renato Ortiz (org.) (1983). Pierre Bourdieu – Sociologia. São Paulo: Atica].

Bozeman, B., & Corley, E. (2004). Scientists’ collaboration strategies: implications for scientific and technical human capital. Research Policy, 33, 599-616. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2004.01.008.

Butcher, J., & Jeffrey, P. (2007). A view from the coal face: UK research student perceptions of successful and unsuccessful collaborative projects. Research Policy, 36, 1239-1250. doi::10.1016/j.respol.2007.04.009.

Campbell, E., Louis, K., & Blumenthal, D. (1998). Looking a gift horse in the mouth: corporate gifts supporting life sciences research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(13), 995-999.

Caraça, J., Conceição, P., & Heitor, M. (2000). Towards a public policy for the research university in Portugal. Higher Education Policy, 13, 181-201. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.hep.8390142.

Clark, B. (1998). Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organisational Pathways of Transformation. New York: Elsevier.

Crane, D. (1972). The Invisible College. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dasgupta, P., & David, P. (1994). Towards a new economics of science. Research Policy, 23(5), 487-521. doi: 10.1016/0048-7333(94)01002-1.

De Grande, H., De Boyser, K., Vandevelde, K., & Van Rossem, R. (2014). From academia do industry: Are doctorate Holders Ready? Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 5(3), 538-561. doi: 10.1007/s13132-014-0192-9.

Direção-Geral de Estatísticas de Educação e Ciência, DGEEC (2012). Inquérito aos Doutorados 2006 e 2012. Lisboa: DGEEC. Extracted 25 of March, 2015 from http://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/208/

Etzkowitz, H. (2008). The Triple Helix: university-industry-government innovation in action. Londres: Routledge.

European Comission (2005). Doctoral Programmes for the European Knowledge Society. Conclusions and Recommendations of the Bologna Seminar held at Salzburg. Brussels: EC. Extracted 12 of September, 2015 from http://www.eua.be/Libraries/cde-website/Salzburg_Conclusions.pdf?sfvrsn=0

European University Association, EUA (2005). Doctoral Programmes for the European Knowledge Society: Report on the EUA Doctoral Programmes Project. Brussels: EC. Extracted 5 of March, 2015 from http://www.eua.be/eua/jsp/en/upload/Doctoral_Programmes_Project_Report.1129278878120.pdf

European University Association, EUA (2007). Doctoral Programmes in europe’s universities: achievements and challenges. Report prepared for european universities and Ministers of Higher education. Brussels: EUA. Extracted the 23 of November, 2015 from http://www.eua.be/activities-services/publications/eua-reports-studies-and-occasional-papers.aspx

European University Association, EUA (2010). Salzburg II recommendations: European Universities’ achievements since 2005 in implementing the Salzburg Principles. Brussels: EUA. Extracted the 23 of November, 2015, from http://www.eua.be/Libraries/Publications_homepage_list/Salzburg_II_Recommendations.sflb.ashx

Eurostat (2015). http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/

Fontana, R., Geuna, A., & Matt, M. (2006). Factors affecting university–industry R&D projects: the importance of searching, screening and signalling. Research Policy, 35, 309-323. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2005.12.001.

Fulton, O., & Holland, C. (2001). Professions or Proletariat: Academic Staff in the United Kingdom After Two Decades of Change. In Enders, J. (Ed.), Academic Staff in Europe: Changing Contexts and Conditions (pp. 301-323). Westport: Greenwood Press.

Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, FCT (2013). Relatório de atividades 2013. Lisboa: FCT. Extracted 23 of Novembro, 2015, from http://www.fct.pt/docs/RelatorioAtividades2013.pdf

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: SAGE Publications.

Gluck, M., Blumenthal, D., & Stoto, M. (1987). University-industry relationships in the life sciences: implications for students and post-doctoral fellows. Research Policy, 16, 327-336. doi: 10.1016/0048-7333(87)90018-7.

Gomes, J. (2010). A Ciência em Portugal – Relatório. Comissão da Educação e Ciência da Assembleia da República. Extracted 23 of November, 2015, from http://app.parlamento.pt/comissoes/RelatorioCienciaPortugal.pdf

Gulbrandsen, M., & Smeby, J-C. (2005). Industry funding and university professors’ research performance. Research Policy, 34 (6), 932–950. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2005.05.004.

Hagedoorn, J., Link, A., & Vonortas, N. (2000). Research partnerships. Research Policy, 29, 567-586. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00090-6.

Hall, B., & Tandon, R. (Eds.). (2014). Knowledge Engagement and Higher Education. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hodge, B. (1995). Monstrous knowledge: Doing PhDs in the new humanities. Australian Universities Review, 38(2), 35-39.

Holmes, L. (2013). Competing perspectives on graduate employability: possession, position or process? Studies in Higher Education, 38(4), 538-554. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2011.587140

Huff, A. (2000). Changes in organizational knowledge production. Academy of Management Review, 25, 288-293.

Jackson, C. (2007). Recruiting PhDs: what works?, Cambridge, CRAC. Extracted 23 of April, 2015, from http://www.nicec.org/nicec_recruiting_phds.pdf

Joly, P., & Mangematin, V. (1996). Profile of public laboratories, industrial partnerships and organisation of R&D: the dynamics of industrial relationships in a large research organisation. Research Policy, 25(6), 901-922.

Krige, J. (1993). Some socio-historical aspects of multinational collaborations in high-energy physics at CERN between 1975 and 1985. In Crawford, E. (Ed.), Denationalizing Science: The Contexts of International Scientific Practice (pp. 233-262). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Lafferty, G., & Fleming, J. (2000). The restructuring of academic work in Australia: power, management and gender. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(2), 257-267. doi: 10.1080/713655344

Lança, I. (Ed.) (2007). Casos de sucesso em I&D: Networking e Transferência de Conhecimento. Lisboa: IESE.

Lee, Y. (2000). The sustainability of university-industry research collaboration: An empirical assessment. Journal of Technology Transfer, 25, 111-133. doi: 10.1023/A:1007895322042.

Leydesdorff, L., & Etzkovitz, H. (1996). Emergence of a triple helix of university–industry–government relations. Science and Public Policy, 23, 279-286. doi: 10.1093/spp/23.5.279.

Lyon, E. (1995). Dilemmas of power in post-graduate practice: a comment on research training. Sociology, 29, 531-540. doi: 10.1177/0038038595029003009.

MacDonald, C., & Barker, D. (2000). Post PhD - What next? A follow-up study of PhD postgraduates of the school of biological sciences. Manchester, University of Manchester.

Marton, F., Hounsell, D., & Entwistle, N. (1997). The experience of learning (2nd Ed.). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Merton, R. (1973). The sociology of science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Meyer-Krahmer, F., & Schmoch, U. (1998). Science-based technologies: university–industry interactions in four fields. Research Policy, 27, 835-851. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00094-8.

Morley, L. (2005). Opportunity or exploitation? Women and quality assurance in higher education. Gender and Education, 17(4), 411-429. doi: 10.1080/09540250500145106

Morley, L. (2007). Sister-matic: gender mainstreaming in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 12(5-6), 607-620. doi: 10.1080/13562510701595267

Morley, L., & Aynsley, S. (2007). Employers, Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Shared Values and Vocabularies or Elitism and Inequalities? Higher Education Quarterly, 61(3), 229-249. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2273.2007.00353.x

Neave, G., & van Vught, F. (1991). Introduction. In Neave, G., & van Vught, F. (Eds.), Prometheus Bound (pp. ix–xv). Oxford: Pergamon.

Nelson, K., & Nelson, R. (2002). On the nature and evolution of human know-how. Research Policy, 31, 719-733. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00086-0.

Nerad, M., & Heggelund, M. (Eds.) (2008). Toward a Global PhD? Forces and forms in doctoral education worldwide. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

OECD. Stat. http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx.

Olmos-Penuela J, Benneworth, P., & Castro-Martınez, E. (2013). Are «STEM from Mars and SSH from Venus»?: Challenging disciplinary stereotypes of research’s social value. Science and Public Policy, 41(3), 384-400. doi:10.1093/scipol/sct071.

Pordata (2016). http://www.pordata.pt/

Powles, M. (1994). Graduate Students at the Interface Between Universities and Industry: An Australian Perspective. Higher Education Policy, 7(1), 37.

Ropers-Huilman, R., & Winters, K. (2011). Feminist Research in Higher Education. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(6), 667-690.

Rosenberg, N. (1992). Scientific instrumentation and university research. Research Policy, 21, 381-390.

Santos, P. (2015). Madeira-ITI: «uma ilha dentro de uma ilha». In Patrício, T., & Conceição, C., Redes e Colaborações Científicas: Os Programas de Parcerias Internacionais em Portugal. Lisboa: Mundos Sociais.

Schultz, M., & Hatch, M. (2005). Building theory from practice. Strategic Organization, 3, 337-348. doi: 10.1177/1476127005055795

Scott, P. (1995). The Meanings of Mass Higher Education. Suffolk: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Shapin, S. (2012). The Ivory Tower: The history of a figure of speech and its cultural uses. British Journal for the History of Science, 45, 1-27. doi: 10.1017/S0007087412000118.

Slaughter, S., Campbell, T., Holleman, M., & Morgan, M. (2002). The «Traffic» in Graduate Students: Graduate Students as Tokens of Exchange between Academe and Industry. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 27(2), 282-312. doi: 10.1177/016224390202700205.

Sugars, J., & Pearce, E. (2010). Transferable skills and employability for doctoral graduates: survey of the current landscape: Final report. Extracted 23 of Novembro, 2015, from http://www.euraxess-cfwb.be/doc/news/Report_Research_employers.pdf

Teichler, U. (2002). Diversification of higher education and the profile of the individual institution. Higher Education and Management, 14(3), 177-188. doi: 10.1787/17269822.

Thune, T. (2009). Doctoral students on the university-industry interface: a review of the literature. Higher Education, 58, 637-651. doi: 10.1007/s10734-009-9214-0

Thune, T. (2010). The Training of «Triple Helix Workers»? Doctoral Students in University–Industry–Government Collaborations. Minerva, 48(4), 463-483. doi: 10.1007/s11024-010-9158-7.

Usher, R. (2002). A diversity of doctorates: Fitness for the knowledge economy? Higher Education Research and Development, 21, 143-153.

Wallgren, L., & Dahlgren, L. (2005). Doctoral education as social practice for knowledge development. Conditions and demands encountered by industry PhD students. Industry and Higher Education, 19, 433-443. Extracted 20 April, 2016, from http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:132426/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Ziman, J. (1987). The problem of problem choice. Minerva, 25, 92-106.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14516/fde.2016.014.021.006

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




e-ISSN: 1698-7802

DOI prefix: 10.14516/fde

URL: www.forodeeducacion.com

FahrenHouse: Salamanca, España 

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 3.0 España.