Ethical Leadership Behaviours of School Administrators from Teachers’ Point of View

Mukadder Boydak Özan, Tuncay Yavuz Özdemir, Ramazan Yirci


The main objective of this study is to determine the degree of ethical leadership behaviours of school administrators according to teachers’ opinions. As a quantitative research, this study was carried out in the academic year of 2010-2011 with 371 teachers who were employed in elementary schools. Ethical Leadership Questionnaire developed by Langlois (2007) has been used in the research. Findings of study reveal that as the year of seniority increases, more teachers think that administrators act within the ethical standards. Teachers’ opinions about school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours do not differentiate according to the teachers’ gender variable. However; in terms of branch variable, a significant difference is observed in teachers’ opinions about their school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours when they faced with an ethical problem. Class teachers’ opinions are more positive than branch teachers’ opinions regarding school administrators’ ethical leadership behaviours. Results indicate that teachers think that their school administrators often faced with an ethical dilemma while deciding upon personnel issues. This study concludes that establishing written ethical codes for school administrators may help them to make decisions with integrity, fairness, and in a more ethical manner especially about personnel issues.

Palabras clave

ethical leadership; school principals; ethical decision; teachers

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Adair, J. E. (1998). Effective leadership: how to develop leadership skills. London: Pan Books.

Aktan, C.C. (2012). The Concept of Business Ethics and Social Responsibility [İş Ahlakı ve Sosyal Sorumluluk Kavramı]. Retrieved on 17.01.2012 from

Aydın, İ. (2006). Eğitim ve Öğretimde Etik. İkinci Baskı [Ethics in Education and Instruction. Second Edition]. Ankara: Pegem A Publishing.

Aydın, T. (2010). İlköğretim Okul Yöneticilerinin Etik Liderlik Özellikleri İle İlgili Öğretmen Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi [The Research on Teachers’ perceptions Regarding Primary School Administrators’ Ethical Leadership Charfacteristics]. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Maltepe University, Social Sciences Institute, İstanbul, Turkey.

Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. The leadership quarterly, 10(2), 181-217.

Bolat, T. ve Seymen, O. A. (2003). Örgütlerde İş Etiğinin Yerleştirilmesinde Dönüşümcü Liderlik Tarzının Etkileri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme [An Evaluation On The Effects Of Transformational Leadership In The Establishment of Business Ethics In Organizations]. Balıkesir University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 6(9), 59- 85.

Bolívar-Botía, A. (2011). Schools Principals in Spain: from Manager to Leader. International Journal of Education, 3(1), 1-18.

Bolden, R. (2004). What is leadership?. Leadership South West Research Report 1. University of Exeter.

Bolden, R., & Gosling, J. (2006). Leadership competencies: time to change the tune?. Leadership, 2(2), 147-163.

Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organizations. London: Sage.

Campbell, E. (2003). Let Right Be Done: Trying to Put Ethical Standards into Practice. In Begley, P.T,, & Johansson, O. (Ed.), The Ethical Dimensions Of School Leadership. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Chemers, M. (2014). An integrative theory of leadership. New York: Psychology Press.

Cherkowski, S. L., Walker, K. D., & Kutsyuruba, B. (2015). Principals’ moral agency and ethical decision-making: Towards transformational ethics. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 10(5).

Cisse, M. & Okato, T. (2009). The Organizational Strategies Of School Management In Japan: Focus On Primary School Principals. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 6(5), 39-50.

Coplan, M. (2001). The Myth Of The Superprincipal. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(7), 582-533.

Culham, T. (2012). Ethics Education of Business Leaders: Emotional Intelligence, Virtues, and Contemplative Learning. North Carolina: Information Age Publishing.

Dawes, John (2008). Do Data Characteristics Change According to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5-point, 7-point and 10-point scales. International Journal of Market Research, 50(1), pp. 61-77.

Eren, E. (1993). Yönetim ve Organizasyon, İkinci.Baskı. [Management and Organization,Second Edition]. İstanbul: Beta Publishing.

Çelik, V. (2000). Eğitimsel Liderlik [Educational Leadership]. Ankara: Pegem A Publishing.

Ford, J. (2006). Discourses of leadership: Gender, identity and contradiction in a UK public sector organization. Leadership, 2(1), 77-99.

Gardiner, M. E., & Tenuto, P. L. (2015). Reflections of Practicing School Principals on Ethical Leadership and Decision-Making: Confronting Social Injustice. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 8(2), 6.

Goodwin, C. J. (2009). Research in psychology: Methods and design. Danvers: John Wiley & Sons.

Gross, J. (1993). The Legal Context Of Professional Ethics. In Strike, K., & Ternasky, L. (Eds.), Ethics For professionals In Education: Perspectives For Preparation And Practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Guy, M.E. (1990). Ethical Decision Making in Everyday Work Situations. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Gültekin, M. (2008). İlköğretim Okulu Yöneticilerinin Etik Liderlik Davranışı Gösterme Düzeylerinin Çeşitli Değişkenler Açısından İncelenmesi. [The Research on the Level of The Primary School Administrators’ Ethical Leadership Behavior]. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Selçuk University Social Sciences Institute, Konya, Turkey.

Güven, S., & Çakir, Ö. (2012). A Study on Primary School English Teachers’ Perception of Self-Efficacy in Turkey. Egitim ve Bilim, 37(163), 43.

Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2012). Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Haynes, F. (1998). The Ethical School. London: Routledge.

Holland, P. (2004). Principals as supervisors: A balancingact. NASSP Bulletin, 88(639), 3-14.

Holzberger, D., Philipp, A., & Kunter, M. (2013). How teachers’ self-efficacy is related to instructional quality: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 774.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad?. Organizational dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.

İraz, R. (2004). Organizasyonlarda Karar Verme ve İletişim Sürecinin Etkinliği Bakımından Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Rolü [Organizational Decision Making and the Role of Information Technology in Terms of Communication Process Efficiency]. Selçuk University The Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 11, 407-422.

İşgüden, B. & Çabuk, A. (2006). Meslek Etiği ve Meslek Etiğinin Meslek Yaşamı Üzerindeki Etkileri [Professional Ethics And Effects Of Professional Ethics On Business Life]. Balıkesir University The Journal of Social Sciences, 9(16), 59-86.

Johnson, J. (2004). Ethics for Trainers. Alexandria: ASTD Press.

Kaptan, S. (1998). Bilimsel Araştırma ve İstatistik Teknikleri [Scientific Research and Statistical Techniques]. Ankara: Science Book.

Karakose, T. (2007). High schoolteachers’ perceptions regarding principals’ ethical leadership in Turkey. Asia Pacific Education Review, 8(3), 464-477.

Karasar, N. (2007). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. 17.Baskı. [Scientific Research Methods, 17. Edition]. Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Kaya, Y., K. (1993). Eğitim Yönetimi, Kuram ve Türkiye’deki Uygulama [Education Management, Theory and Practice in Turkey]. Ankara: Set Ofset Publishing.

Langlois, L., & Lapointe, C. (2009). Can Ethics be Learned: Results from the TERA three year Research project. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(2), 147-163.

Lee, D. M, (2008). Essential Skills for Potential School Administrators: A Case Study of One Saskatchewan Urban School Division. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Department of Educational Administration University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2008). Linking Leadership to Student Learning: The Contributions of Leader Efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4).

Leithwood, K., & Montgomery, D. (1982). The role of the elementary principal in program improvement. Review of Educational Research, 52(3), 309-339.

Mattar, D. (2012). Instructional Leadership in Lebanese Public Schools, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(4), 509-531.

Maxwell, J.C. (1998). The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

McCabe, C. (2013). The Fearless School Leader: Making the Right Decisions. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

McGoodwin, J. R. (2001). Understanding the cultures of fishing communities: A key to fisheries management and food security (No. 401). Boulder: Food & Agriculture Organization.

Mendes, E. (2003). What Empathy Can Do. Educational Leadership, 61(1), 56-59.

Mitchell, C., & Castle, J. (2002). The Instructional Role of The School Principal, Final Report, Retrieved on 17/08/2014, from:

Northouse, P. G. (1997). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Peters, B. A. (2008). Managing Diversity in Intergovernmental Organisations. Wiesbaden: VS, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Price, S. (1992). Ethics And Standards in Institutional Research. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Putman, S. M. (2012). Investigating teacher efficacy: Comparing preservice and inservice teachers with different levels of experience. Action in Teacher Education, 34(1), 26-40.

Resmi Gazete (2005). Kamu Görevlileri Etik Davranış İlkeleri ile Başvuru Usul ve Esasları Hakkında Yönetmelik [Turkish Official Gazette 2005, The Regulation on Principles and Procedures of Ethical Conduct for Public Officials, Regulation No.25785]

Rowe, W. G., & Guerrero, L. (2012). Cases in leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Schultz, R. A. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Ethics and Information Technology. Hershey: IRM Press.

Sears, G. (2006). The principalship, As tudy of prescriptions,practices and perceptions within a cristian school context. (Unpublished doctorate dissertation). School of education, The University of Adelaide, Australia.

Sergiovanni, T. (1992). Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement. San Francisco,CA: Jossey-Bass.

Shields, C. M. (2012). Transformative leadership in education: Equitable change in an uncertain and complex world. London: Routledge.

Simonis, J.M.A. (2009). The Relationship Between Music Educators’ Ethical Awareness And Students’ Sense Of Belonging And Academic Achievement. (Unpublished Doctorate Thesis). Graduate College of Bowling Green State University, Ohio, The United States.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2014). Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. Psychological reports, 114(1).

Spillane, J. P. (2012). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Starratt, R.J. (2004). Ethical leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Stefkovic, J.A., & Shapiro, J.P. (2003). Deconstructing Communities: Educational Leaders and their Ethical Decision-Making Processes. In Begley, P.T & Johansson, O. (Eds.), The Ethical Dimensions Of School Leadership. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Stogdill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of Theory and Research. New York: Free Press

Taymaz, H. (2003). Okul Yönetimi. Yedinci baskı. [School Management. 7. Edition]. Ankara: Pegem A Publishing.

Topuzoğlu, A. P. (2009). Demografik Özellikler Açısından Okul Yöneticisinin Etik Liderlik Özellikleri [School Administrators’ Ethical Leadership Characterstics in terms of Demographic Data]. (Unpublished Master Thesis Maltepe University). Social Sciences Institute, İstanbul, Turkey.

Turhan, M. (2007). Genel ve Mesleki Lise Yöneticilerinin Etik Liderlik Davranışlarının Okullardaki Sosyal Adalet Üzerindeki Etkisi [The Effect of Ethical Leadership Behaviors of School Principals on Social Justice In Schools]. (Unpublished Doctorate Thesis). Fırat University, Social Sciences Institute, Elazığ, Turkey.

Winkler, I. (2009). Contemporary Leadership Theories: Enhancing the Understanding of the Complexity, Subjectivity and Dynamic of Leadership. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Xu, F., Caldwell, C., & Anderson, V. (2016). Moral Implications of Leadership-Transformative Insights. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 6(03), 76-85.

Yaman, A. (2010). New Roles of Supervisors; Ethical Leadership [İç Denetçinin Yeni Rolü; Etik Liderlik]. Denetişim, 5, Kamu İç Denetçileri Derneği Yayını, Ankara, 9-16.

Yamamoto, Julie K., Gardiner, Mary E., & Tenuto, Penny L. (2014). Emotion in leadership: Secondary school administrators’ perceptions of critical incidents. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 42(2), 165-183.

Yirci, R., Özdemir, T.Y., Kartal, S.E. & Kocabaş, İ. (2014). Teachers’ perceptions regarding school principals’ coaching skills. School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organisation. Doi: 10.1080/13632434.2014.905465

Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in organizations (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Yukl, G., & VanFleet, G. D. (1992). Theory and research on leadership in organizations. In Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Volume 3 (2nd Edition) (pp. 147-197). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Zepeda, S. J. (2013). Instructional leadership for school improvement. London: Routledge.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

e-ISSN: 1698-7802

DOI prefix: 10.14516/fde


FahrenHouse: Salamanca, España 

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 3.0 España.